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According to physicists, graphene can generate mass

The law of conservation of mass, invented by Newton, lost its relevance more than half a century ago. With the advent of quantum physics, it became clear that it is only a special and limited case of the law of conservation of energy and is not always satisfied. When energy enters the system, the mass increases and vice versa. For example, when the iron is heated, its mass increases, and during thermonuclear reactions inside the Sun, the mass of helium produced is less than the mass of hydrogen. In the case of an iron, energy is absorbed, and in the case of the sun it is released.

The unusual properties of graphene (namely, the fact that electrons in graphene supposedly behave like Dirac fermions with zero effective mass — relativistic particles) have given rich food for thought to theoretical physicists. For example, a group of physicists from Saudi Arabia and Morocco put forward an interesting theory in which the hypothetical properties of graphene are combined with string theory, namely, with the hypothesis of compactification of measurements.

Compactification of measurements is one of the main tenets of string theory, with which string theory can be inscribed into the world we are observing. The reality surrounding us, according to the special theory of relativity, is four-dimensional. At the same time, string theory provides for the existence of 26 or at least 11 dimensions.

The compactification hypothesis suggests that the remaining dimensions exist on extremely small scales and we simply do not observe them. It is assumed that it is in the process of compactification of spaces that a mass is formed. Figuratively, we can say that in the process of decay or synthesis of physical structures, mass does not appear and does not disappear, but simply goes into other dimensions (proton mass (≈938 MeV) is several dozen times greater than the mass of its constituent quarks (about 11 MeV)).
If the compactification hypothesis is correct, then the weightless electrons in graphene will gain mass when the graphene is rolled into a tube, because they can fly through the tube axis (that is, if the space is compactified in 2D in 1D).

In other words, experiments with graphene can prove one of the most promising theories in modern physics - string theory.

It remains only to assume how mass generation can be used in practice, for example, in microelectronics.

Source: https://habr.com/ru/post/106624/

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