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Bodybuilding as an exact science

Warm up

It has been 23 years since I last wrote to myself training programs. Several sheets in a notebook with pencil drawings, notes and numbers. I began to compose them after a lumbar injury caused by my own stupidity and ignorance, in a small “village” rocking chair next to the Zagorsk PSP. That extra pancake to the weight being lifted responds with pain in my back to this day. He makes me, under any circumstances, keep fit. So we live, the pain is waiting for when a muscular corset weakens, and I do not give her that chance.

Much, much has changed over the years, but people still “pump iron” and make the same mistakes. I write for them. Maybe someone will come in handy ...


Level 1. Psychological

No matter what exactly will be the last straw. It is important that a person should become angry with himself and his weakness. It is important that he should decide to change his body and his life.
Sitting posture contributes to obesity in the abdomen, leg muscle tissue atrophies and is replaced by a binder, internal organs are overgrown with fatty layers, lung volume and their ability to absorb oxygen decreases. Following physical weakness comes mental melancholy.
1. It is time to make a choice between a slow death and a full life. Give the body the necessary minimum of movements. Stop using the elevator and bus. In any point within 1-2 kilometers from the house - go on foot. Move every day!
Result: Depression will recede. The world around will acquire forgotten colors and want to live again.

2. At first, it doesn’t matter what to do, the main thing is to do it regularly. Do not look for an expensive fitness club with a swimming pool. Want a result - go to a small basement next to the house. It has its own atmosphere. There, you will become part of a friendly team, where everyone will willingly help and prompt you at first. You can no longer go to the gym because of fatigue or just laziness. After all, friends are waiting for you there.

3. You will soon notice how much your psyche affects your strength. Practice with a partner. Insure each other and feed the shells. You will be amazed how much your strength grows; if a partner only touches the barbell, helping you in the last bench press.

4. To achieve results, you swing the pendulum load-recovery. Full rest, healthy and long-lasting sleep, relaxation are the most important elements, without which it is close to mental exhaustion. Listen to your body, give it a significant (up to a week) recovery time. But remember: the interruption of training for periods of more than 0.5-1 months detrimental to the heart.

5. Regular exercise will give you the feeling of "muscle joy." This natural and only useful drug - deserved payment for the effort. The more you shed sweat, the stronger your mind and willpower will become.

Level 2. Training

Individual program.
The main parameters determining your training program are: age, weight and height ratio, genetic type, presence of injuries and contraindications.
Age is one of the most accurate criteria for choosing a program.
In the period from 15 to 18 years laid the foundation for the figure for the rest of his life. Training at this age gives the most stable results. Maximum weights can be raised only after 30, and after 40 maximum attention should be paid to warming up the joints and ligaments.
Weight is the most inaccurate parameter. Fat is much lighter than muscle tissue. The question is in what proportion are they in your body?
If you have a lack of physique, such as slouch. First of all straighten it by pumping your back on the horizontal bar and simulators. Otherwise, the overall growth of the muscles, especially the chest, even more bulge your slouch.

Knowledge of anatomy helps a lot in training.
It is necessary to change the angle of the bench, or the width and shape of the grip, or the position of the elbows, as an exercise will be directed to completely different muscles. Often the trajectory of the movement of the projectile or the dynamics of the position of the hands, as in the Arnold bench press, matters.
The knowledge of such nuances will help to avoid monotony, to expand the quality and range of study, to feel the muscle being worked out. (Supination - turning the hand outwards when lifting for biceps.)
Muscles of different sizes require a different approach:
Press shake up to 2 times a day, 15-20 repetitions, each time to complete exhaustion.
The muscles of the arms and chest are 8–12 repetitions, gradually increasing the limiting weights.
The leg muscles are brought to exhaustion only in the last set (approach) and give a week of rest.

Warm up and hitch.
The joints, especially the elbows, are easily injured if not warming up and warming up enough. 10-15 minutes of jogging and gymnastics are required at the beginning of classes. Any exercise begins with a small weight and gradually brought to the worker. If your muscles ache from the last workout, do not wait, feel free to go to a new one. The pain will quickly go away.
The hitch includes any active cardio (running, exercise bike, jump rope, etc.) lasts 10-20 minutes. It burns fat well, washes away tired muscles with blood (will be less sore), calms the psyche. For me personally, stretching the legs shows just record results just in a hitch after training the leg muscles.

Anaerobic and aerobic training
Az and Buki modern sport. In our body there are two main sources of energy for the muscles:
muscle and liver glycogen and subcutaneous fat. Have you ever run a distance of more than a kilometer? At first you run easy, then you start to get tired, and somewhere after that, the second breath opens. We have just described the process of converting anaerobic exercise to aerobic exercise. First, glycogen was consumed, then it ran out and the body switched to the reserve tank of the fat layer.
It is important for us to remember that anaerobic exercise builds muscle, and aerobic - burns excess fat.

Interval aerobics or spinning - the most effective way to "fat loss" is a series of short, about 1 minute, but very powerful loads (say, pedal the bike at a crazy pace), interspersed with minute intervals of a moderate pace. The best time to spin in the morning on an empty stomach or immediately after strength training. The total spinning time is 20-30 minutes.

"Fast" and "slow" fibers
Muscles consist of two types of fibers. “Fast” fibers are called force fibers. They are responsible for jerk weight lifting. “Slow” fibers are called endurance fibers, they show themselves in such loads as marathon running. The main increase in muscle mass give “fast” fibers.

Primary and dependent muscles
The largest and most powerful in our body are the leg muscles. In the second place is the back muscles. The growth of these muscle groups determines the weight of the body, and the total weight of the body determines the possibilities for the growth of small muscles. You can perform only basic exercises such as deadlift and bench press - all muscle groups will grow. Therefore, it is useless to strain over shaking the biceps without first pumping the back and legs.

Muscles grow when torn from stress
In any exercise, only 15% of the total working muscle is involved. At peak loads, the thinnest fibers break and the overcompensation mechanism takes effect. Recovers more fiber than it was before the break. This is the mechanism of growth. The closer you get to the critical point, the better the result will be. Remember: muscles do not grow weight burden, and training mode!

Stretch to download something.
The problem of breaking the fibers can be solved not only by increasing the load, but also by expanding the amplitude of the movement. Pre-stretched muscles are easier to tear. In addition, the amplitude often adds additional muscle groups to the work, which will positively affect the shape of the relief.
But, do not confuse with the “stretching” of tendons and joints. You should not sit on the splits in front of the squatting with a barbell, your legs will lose 10-15% of their strength. It would be more correct, in this case, to squat first, and then stretch. Stretching exercises after power facilitate muscle growth, as a result - increase strength.

Raise quickly and lower slowly.
Why do runners have dried calfs, and skaters have hefty ones? It all depends on the type of load. Runners dry up their legs with a long and uniform load, while skaters swing their short but very powerful jerks, interspersed with rest periods.
Therefore, lift the weight with a jerk, and try to lower slowly, sensitively.

Split or separate training gives your body an optimal load-rest mode. The principle of the split - each workout to work only 1-2 muscles. Suppose one exercise is a leg; second, back and shoulders; the third is chest and arms, etc.
This allows you to intensively train in a circle the whole body, while giving each muscle enough time to rest.

Superset is the sequential development of antagonist muscles (flexor-extensor)
Biceps - triceps, quadriceps - hip biceps, press - lumbar muscles.
When we shake a triceps, the biceps also heats up and fills with blood. Consequently, he is ready to take on the burden. Combining two exercises in a row on both muscles will have a greater effect than training them separately. In addition, the injection of only one antagonist deforms the skeleton.

Combined set - two exercises for one muscle with a pause of not more than 30 seconds;

Tricset - 3 exercises in a row for one muscle group;

Pyramid - exercise begins with a small weight and for a few sets bring to record. Each preliminary set is not brought to failure, due to this force only arrive.

The drop-set is the Pyramid in the opposite direction. Bringing "to failure", then reducing the working weight and again bringing "to failure."

Isolation exercises - these exercises do not grow muscles, they are auxiliary for basic exercises. The task of isolated exercises is to pinpoint a specific muscle group (pre-exhaustion) in order to take it out of the game and give the opportunity to fully pump the neighboring muscles.

Negatives are a special, extremely intensive way to increase volumes. It uses exorbitant weights and generally no climbs. The pre-lifted weight slowly descends. For example, when bench press in Smith's simulator, a partner helps you lift the barbell, and you have to lower it slowly and with only one hand. Negatives require mandatory partner assistance.

You did butcher the chicken? Recall how each muscle is wrapped in a stocking of connective fibers ( fascia ). It tightens the muscle and does not allow it to increase in volume. However, this stocking is elastic and can be “stretched” by pumping maximum amount of blood into the muscle. Muscles are called the second heart. It is only necessary to correctly direct the work of this "heart." At the end of the training you happened to “hammer” the biceps to stone hardness - this is the pumping.

Cyclic loads are used for targeted growth of a specific muscle group. They represent cycles of 2-3 weeks of the ultimate base loads shared by 1-2 weeks of pumping isolating exercises.

Under bodybuilding cheating is meant this type of violation of the technique of exercise, which allows you to do 1-3 more repetitions. This may be the help of a partner in the weakest zone of the amplitude of the bench press, or the flapping motion, or connection to the work of other muscle groups. Forced replay when pumping biceps perform at the expense of the free hand. Partial repeat is a way to do more pressure or pressure by reducing amplitude. Cheating is a way to overcome the psychological barrier, an opportunity to take another half step ahead.
A separate type of cheating can be considered the execution of "abandoned" sets without a break, when you actually completed several sets to failure, but they practically merge into one continuous one.

Small muscles, ligaments and joints
In matters of your health there are no trifles. You can not "hang" powerful muscles on a weak skeleton. To strengthen the ligaments and small muscles (muscles of balance) are used strength exercises on an unstable basis, such as the Swiss ball. In addition, the development of small muscles often helps to isolate the main muscle groups more strongly.

Level 3. Meals

If we want to get a beautiful figure, we will inevitably have to learn how to eat right. Eat as often as possible 5-7-12 times a day. Little and balanced.

"Grief days" - studies have shown that exceptions only confirm the rules.
Select 1 day per week. On this day, everything is possible! Such a day will be a positive shake-up for the body, it will help psychologically survive the next week of restrictions and give a greater end result.

Fats or fatty acids are divided into 3 types:

Mono- and Polyunsaturated (hydrogen) are vegetable oils and fish oil. Not only are they well absorbed, but also contribute to the absorption of vitamins. Directly involved in hormonal metabolism and immune processes.
Saturated (hydrogen) is coconut oil, chocolate, butter, animal fats. They are the raw material for the production of testosterone, but in excessive quantities they block insulin receptors, reducing the rate of muscle growth.
Trans fats (homogenized) - obtained from plant by hydrolysis (hydrogen saturation). In its pure form - it is disgusting smelling white greasy mass; flavored with flavors and additives - margarine. This type of fat almost does not deteriorate and is therefore used eagerly in the confectionery industry and food networks. At the same time, it is poorly absorbed, easily deposited under the skin, provokes cardiovascular diseases and cancer.

From now on, there are “fast” and “slow” carbohydrates for you.
“Fast” carbs are those that are digested quickly. These are all foods that contain a lot of sugar, glucose and fructose. Grapes, buns, sweet bars. Eat about 80 g. Immediately after your workout (within 30 minutes) it will cause insulin secretion and this transport hormone will supply the exhausted muscles with sugar.
"Slow" carbohydrates - are digested for some time. These are buckwheat, rice, oatmeal, durum wheat pasta, whole grain bread, fibrous vegetables and fruits. They should be the main in your diet. It is very good to take about 40 g. For 30-45 minutes before training, in order to maintain strength.

We grow muscles, and muscles are made of protein. The perfect food would be chicken breasts, followed by beef steaks and other meats. We limit the amount of fat in the meat, so a piece is always preferable to minced meat, especially cooked minced meat. None of us can be sure of its composition, especially in the composition of sausages, sausages and wieners. But this is probably another topic. Grilled meat contains less fat than fried in a griddle.
Protein shakes I leave for lovers. Shake and drink is easier than chopping and cooking. But nobody guarantees assimilation and lack of flatulence.

Fiber brings nothing to the body, on the contrary - it is a universal cleaner. She, like a cleaning brush, removes carcinogens and pesticides from the body. However, you should not get involved in the consumption of fiber, in excess quantities (30 grams per day), it begins to bring us useful hormones.

Vitamins and trace elements.
The industry of drugs and nutritional supplements is the second after drugs in terms of profitability.
And, where business comes first, health issues are lost in the fog. I strongly do not recommend you to get involved in powders and pills. Moreover, all my life experience suggests that one and the same can be bought in different packages, and for very, and very different money. For myself, I made the following list:
"Undevit" - a set of multivitamins
"Complivit - Magnesium" set of vitamins and minerals
Fish oil "Amber drop" in capsules, so as not to drink from a spoon.

Be sure to drink clean water, especially in training. Dehydration (dehydration) - lack of water in the body reduces muscle strength by 10-15%. In hot weather, it is acceptable to drink up to 4 liters per day.
I have genetically increased acidity, so I prefer a slightly mineralized (like Novoterskaya), it neutralizes the acid in the stomach, saturates the body with mineral salts and dulls the feeling of hunger.

Highly recommended, especially fresh. Shopping is certainly an order of magnitude less effective, but it also does an excellent job with dehydration, and together with cocoa and cornflakes it is an excellent means of recovery after workouts.
Milk with freshly squeezed carrot juice will be offered in most sports bars for very separate money. Personally, I discovered the beauty of milk in the period of abnormal heat in Moscow. At this time it is good to drink it diluting 1/3 with mineral water or green tea.

Coffee and green tea are the most affordable "fat burners" for you. Caffeine releases fatty molecules and sends them to the bloodstream, and catechins from tea block the enzymes that limit this process. It remains only to put the fat into the work and do not let it settle down in the body again. But, for God's sake, do not overdo it.

Garlic and red pepper - these seasonings a little, but contribute to the burning of fat.

I specifically highlighted this item.
Alcohol is a poison, and like most poisons, it is used, in small doses, as a medicine. Your body itself produces ethyl alcohol to relieve muscle pain.
Alcohol is a drug, and like any drug it can wait. He will wait for your will to weaken from fatigue, or bad news, or simply, give way to tradition.
There will be no "cubes" on the stomach if you can not give up alcohol. A bottle of beer in the evening and the entire dinner will go into layers under your skin.
The more you swing, the faster your body clears, the stronger your will, the easier it is to defeat the attraction.
My most rigid rule is not to drink at all on the day of training!
Next, reduce the dose. Opened a bottle of beer - pour home or set aside half for later. Let's agree. You will have “cheer days”. You can afford to drink, at first, only once a week, but ideally, no more than 2 times a month.
No need to "tie" forever. Stand just today. Tell yourself: "I do not drink today."

Level 4. Balancing

At this level, the main criterion is efficiency. As you understand, training is most effective at the limit of possibilities, but it is worth crossing the line and behind it is a painful state of overtraining, a sharp drop in immunity, reduced vision, tears of ligaments and joint injuries. The more accurately you calculate the load and calories consumed, the higher the result in the mirror will be.
For a relief the maximum of muscle bulk and the minimum percent of fat is necessary. Both are extremely non-constant values. Balanced exercises support intensive metabolism. Diet - like the valves of the furnace, regulates the flow of "fuel".
Complicated? That's not all. It is not enough to pump up volumes, it is necessary to save them. It is necessary to gape a little, fall asleep on an empty stomach or get carried away by jogging and the evil catabolics will take away your kilograms from sweat and blood.
Catabolism - the destruction of muscle mass to produce liver glycogen.
Sleep is the main regulator of hormonal balance, and night is the time when you can lose your muscles. It is impossible to eat tightly after 9 pm, this leads to a slowdown in metabolism, but it is necessary to maintain a “fire in the furnace” with cocktails and light snacks 1-2 times per night. Ate a little more - fat will appear, and for the breakdown of fat, three essential components of oxygen + water + vitamin B are needed. Just one is not enough and our muscles will go to the furnace.

Level 5. Professional

I do not think that you will need it, but let's take a look, for the sake of curiosity.
At this level, the determining criterion is the genetic type. Much can be achieved through perseverance and hard work, but the tops are accessible only to the lucky ones "from God."
At stake is prize money and fame. They train every day and even 2 times a day,
and lack of knowledge is compensated by human experiments.
Separation and professional muscular relief is almost complete dissolution of the subcutaneous fat layer at the time of entering the podium.In addition, before performances and photo-sessions, professionals also dehydrate the skin by taking diuretics (diuretic supplements).
Personally, I do not like what they do with them. It's a pity it somehow becomes.


1. Be sure to make yourself a training program. Themselves, or with the help of an instructor.

2. Learn the technique of doing the exercises before you begin to do them.

3. Never chase records and "solid" weights. If something is tested for strength, it is sure to eventually break.

4. Remember, easy ways inevitably lead to dire consequences.

5. By the way, the heart is a muscle, it can not be broken, but you can pump it.

6. And, most importantly, never, never, DO NOT lift large weights on the floor on straight legs.
Doing deadlifts and similar exercises, never, never turn your back! Always pull the pelvis back and bend back.

7. Look straight ahead. DO NOT lift your head and DO NOT rest your chin on your chest! Head in line with the body. Hands in line with the hands.

8. Knee firmly when bent at an angle of 90 °, do NOT lunges with knees at an acute angle.

On this, while enough. Be healthy.

Source: https://habr.com/ru/post/100806/

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