The installation will not affect the current installation of Google Chrome, you can not make Google Chrome Canary Build your default browser, available only for Windows. It lives its own life: its installation directory, updated separately, can be launched in parallel with stable / beta / dev Google Chrome.
As the developers say Canary Build is the same as dev, only it will be updated more often, the version is higher than the dev. Developers want to make the Canary Build update frequency almost daily. ')
From blog Google Chrome Canary builds